1. The Arabs were the first Muslims to cast their covetous eyes on India attack it.
2. Incensed by certain pirates of Debal, Al-Hajjaj, the governor of Iraq sent Mohammad Bin Qasim to punish the Indian King. In 712 A.D. Near Raor, Dahir was beaten and killed.
3. In 1014 A.D. Mahmud took Thaneshwar and burnt the temple of Mathura. In 1018 he sacked Kanauj. In 1022-23, he received submission of Gwalior and Kalinjar. In 1025 he destroyed the Somnath Temple in Kathiawar. Between 1000 to 1026 A.D. he made 17 incursions into India.
4. Al-Beruni, was in the court of Mahmud Ghazni and he came to India with him and wrote the famous Treatise ‘Kitab-ul-Hind’.
5. Firdausi (the author of Shahnama) and Utbi also adorned Muhammad Ghazni’s court.
6. Muhammad Ghur was defeated by Prithviraj Chauhan in the first battle of Tarain in 1191 but the former defeated the letter in the second battle of Tarain in 1192 and founded Muslim rule in India.
1. They set up their capital at Kanchi (modern Kanchipuram)
2. Their authority extended over southern Andhra and northern Tamil Nadu.
3. There was a long struggle between the pallavas and the Chalukyas of Badami for supremacy.
4. Narasimhavarman ( A.D.630-68), the pallava King, occupied Chalukyan capital vatapi in about A.D.642 and assumed the title of Vatapikonda.
CHALUKYAS (EARLY CHALUKYAS OF BADAMI A.D.543-753)
1. Pulakesin II(A.D.608-642): The most famous Chalukya king.
2. Aihole inscription an eulogy written by his court poet Ravikirti.
3. He defeated Harsha’s army on the Narmada.
4. Completely defeated the pallavas in 740.
5. The Rastrakutas bought their hegemony to an end in 757.
LATER CHALUKYAS OF KALVANI ( A.D.973-1190)
1. Vikramaditya VI( A.D.1076-1126)- He is credited to have started Chalukyan vikram era.
2. Rashtrakutas (757-973): Originally a feudatory of Chalukyas of badami and overthrew them in A.D.757 and established own dynasty known as the Rashtrakutas of Mankhed.
3. Important rulers: Dantidurga; Krishna I ( he is credited to have built the Kailasa temple at Ellora); Govind III; Amoghavarsha(the most famous Rashtrakuta king).
THE CHOLAS (850-1279)
1. In 850 A.D Vajayalaya captured Tanjore from the pallavas. He was feudatory of the pallavas. He took titles of Tanjai Konda and Parkesri and built a durga temple in Tanjore.
2. During Aditya I’s regin the Cholas freed themselves from the control of pallavas. He defeated the pallava king Aparajita and secured control over the whole Tondaimandalam.He also defeated the Gangas and the pandyas.
3. Parantaka I was also called Madurai Konda. In the battle of Vellore he defeated the combined armies of pandyas and Singhals and captured Madurai. During his reign the rivalry with Srilanka was started.
4. In the battle of Takkolam, the combined armies of the Rashtrakutas and the Gangas defeated Parantaka I.
5. The Uttarmerur of Parantaka I throws light on the local administration of the Cholas.
6. Parantaka II defeated veer pandya. He also defeated the Srilanka king for having helped the,Pandiyas.
7. Uttamchola defeated the Rashtrakutas.
8. Raja Raja I (985-1014) adopted the titles of Aruemolivarman, Mamadi Chodadeva, Jaykonda, Martanda Chola, Mumadi Chola, Keralanath, Singhalatank, Pandkulashini etc.
9. Raja Raja I defeated the Cheras Chalukyas and Gangas. He captured madura from the Pandyas. He capture northern Ceylon and made Polonnaruva its capital in place of Anuradhapur. He annexed the
10. He built the Brihadeshwar Shive temple in Tanjore which is also called Rajarajeshwar temple.
11. During his reign, the ruler of Srivijaya built a Vihara at Nagapattanam
12. Rajendra I (1014-1044) succeeded Rajaraja I. He completed the victory over Ceylon and took its king Mahinda to the Chola kingdom. He defeated the Pandyas and Keralas and formed a new kingdom with its capital at Madurai. His son Rajadhiraja was appointed the viceroy here.
13. He led an expedition to the north and defeated the pala ruler Mahipala I. he assumed the title of ‘Gangaikonda’ and established a new capital named ‘Gangaikonda cholapuram’. He built a Shiva temple here and excavated a tank called ‘Chodagarg’. He also defeated the Shailendra or Srivijaya King Vijayatungavarman.
14. During his reign, his son Rajadhiraja suppressed a rebellion of the Pandyas and Cheras.
15. He assumed the title of ‘Pandit Chola’. Mudikonda Chola,, Nigarilli Chola and Gangaikondachola.
16. He had allowed Vijaytungavarman of the Shailendra dynasty to build the Chudamani Vihar at Nagapatanam.
17. We owe much to the concept of Panchayati Raj to the Cholas.
18. The Chola Empire was divided into 6 provinces called Mandalams. Mandalams were subsequently divided into kottam, Valanadu, Nadu and Gram.
19. The uttarmerur inscription of Dantivarman Pallava and Parantaka I have thrown sufficient light on the local self government of the Cholas.
20. Ur was the most common assembly of villages where land was held by different castes. The assembly consisted to tax paying residents.
21. The sabha or the Mahasabha was the exclusive assembly of the brahamanas who resided in the agrahar villages given to them through brahmadeya grants.
22. The third type of assembly, the Nagaram was the assembly of merchants in towns.
Sri Gupta – First Gupta King Chandragupta I (A.D.320-335)
First important Gupta King. Married lichhavi princes.
Started the Gupta era in A.D.319-20. Marking the date of his accession.
Samudragupta also known as Kaviraja
Allahabad inscription written by Harishena, his court poet a lengthy euology to him inscribed on an Ashokan pillar, which provides the basic information about his empire.
According to the Allahabad inscription, he never knew any defeat and hence is called the “Napolean of India”.
He defeated Sakas so, he was known as ‘Sakari’
Chandragupta II (A.D.380-42)
Chandragupta II married his daughter Prabhavati with a Vakataka prince; after the death of the prince he ruled by proxy over the Vakataka Kingdom through Prabhavati.
Ujjain seems to have been made the second capital by him.
Adopted the title of Vikramaditya (first used by an Ujjain ruler in 58 B.C.to mark his victory over the Sakas
Kalidas and Amarasimha were in his court.
Fahien (399-414), a Chinese pilgrim, visited India.
An Iron Pillar of Chandra Gupta near Qutub Minar in Delhi.
Kumara Gupta (A.D.415-454)
He founded Nalanda University
Skanda Gupta (A.D.455-67)
He was last Gupta King
1. Fall of the Gupta Empire: Though their rule lingered till the middle of the sixth century A.D. the imperial glory had ended a century earlier.
2. The reasons were invasions by the Hunas, from central India, rise of feudalism, weak successors, financial difficulties, declined of foreign trade, and absence of large professional army to maintain vast empire.
Castes proliferated into sub-castes; position of Sudras and women
improved; untouchables and women improved.
Brahmanism came to the forefront.
Guptas followed a policy of tolerance towards different religious sects.
Guptas issued the largest number of gold coins
Samudragupta is represented on his coins playing lute (Vina)
Chandragupta II maintained nine luminaries or great scholars in his court. Called ‘Navaratnas’.
Ajanta paintings (1st to 7th century A.D.) most of them belonging to Gupta period.
Brick temples of Bhitargaon in Kanpur. Bhitari in Ghazipur and Deogarh in Jhansi.
Nalanda was set up in the 5th century by Kumara Gupta.
Aryabhatta calculated (pi) to 3.141 and the length of the solar year to 365.3586805 days, and believed that the earth was a sphere and rotated on its axis, and that the shadow of the earth falling on the moon caused eclipses.
Varahamihira wrote his famous Panchasiddantika
Shakuntala play and meghaduta(lyrical poems) by Kalidasa.
Plays continued to be romantic comedies.Mrichchha katika by Shudraka being an exception.
Hindus were divided into two main sect- Vaishnavas (more prevalent in northern India)and Shaivas(prevalent in south India)
Mahabharata and Ramayana were finally complied probably in forth century A.D.
Sanskrit grammar based on panini and patanjali written.